Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 SST Question Answer
1 MARK QUESTION
Question1. Which French artist prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world?
Answer: Frederic Sorrieu.
Question 2. What do you understand by “absolutist”?
Answer: Absolutist, literally a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and repressive.
Question 3. What is a Utopian?
Answer: Utopian is a vision of society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
Question 4. What are advantages of a nation? Write one advantage.
Answer: The existence of nations is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master
Question 5. What is Plebiscite?
Answer: Plebiscite is a direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
Question 6. What political and constitutional changes did take place in the wake of the French Revolution in 1789?
Answer: The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
Question 7. State any one step that could create a sense of collective identity among the French people.
Answer: The ideas of the fatherland and the citizen emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
Question 8.Which clubs were set up after the French Revolution and by whom?
Answer: As the news of events in France reached the different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs.
Question 9.How the Napoleon code was implemented in the regions under French control?
Answer: In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
Question 10.Why did the people in the conquered territories become hostile to Napoleon’s rule?
Answer: The people became hostile due to increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe. All these seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.
3 Marks Questions
Question 1. Who was Frederic Sorrieu? Describe main features of the first print prepared by him in 1848?
(1) Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of “democratic and social republics” as he called them.
(2) The main features of the first print of the series were as mentioned below:
- It shows men and women of all ages of Europe and America offering homage to the statue of Liberty.
- Liberty was personified as a female figure with the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man in the other.
- In the foreground are the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
- Procession is led by USA and Switzerland who were already nation states. Other people are following them.
- From heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene to symbolise fraternity among the nations of the world.
- In Sorrieu‟s uptopian vision, the peoples of the world were grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. Thus,many issues have been visualised by Sorrieu in his prints but it is vision that can be realised.
Question 2. Describe the political condition of Europe in the mid-eighteenth century?
Answer: The political condition of Europe in the mid-eighteenth century was as mentioned below :
(1) There were no nation states
(2) Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories.
(3) There were autocratic monarchies in Eastern and Central Europe.
Question 3.Describe how the events in France affected the different cities in Europe?
Answer: When the news of the events in France reached the different cities in Europe it had the effects as mentioned below:
- Students and other members of educated middle classes began setting up Jacobin clubs.
- Their activities and campaigns prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s.
- With the break of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
5 Marks Questions
Question 1.Who was granted the right to vote in France during the period of revolution?
Answer: In France, the right to vote and election was granted only to property-owning men.
- Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
- During the period of Jacobins, all adult males were granted right to vote.
- The Napoleonic Code again granted limited right to vote. Women were reduced to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands.
- Women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Question2. “The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support that statement with arguments.
Answer: The 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe due to the following reasons:
- There was enormous increase in population all over Europe.
- There were more seekers of jobs than employment.
- People migrated from rural areas to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
- There was stiff competition between the products of small producers and products imported from England where goods were made by machines as industrialisation had already taken place there.
- Peasants‟ condition was bad due to burden of feudal dues and obligations.
- The prices of food had risen due to bad harvest. This had resulted in widespread pauperism in town and country.